|U.S. Army Corps of Engineers|
|Active||11 June 1775; 242 years ago (1775-06-11) – present|
|Country||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Army|
|Size||37,000 civilian and military (approx. 2%) members|
|Garrison/HQ||Washington, D.C., U.S.|
|Motto(s)||Essayons (Let Us Try)|
|Colors||Scarlet and White|
|Lieutenant General Todd T. Semonite, Chief of Engineers|
|COL Richard Gridley,|
BG Louis Lebègue Duportail,
COL Joseph Swift,
COL Alexander Macomb, Jr.,
BG William Louis Marshall,
MG Richard Delafield,
BG Joseph Totten,
BG Henry Robert,
LTG Edgar Jadwin,
LTG Leif J. Sverdrup
|Shoulder Sleeve Insignia|
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies. Although generally associated with dams, canals and flood protection in the United States, USACE is involved in a wide range of public works throughout the world. The Corps of Engineers provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public, and provides 24% of U.S. hydropower capacity.
The corps' mission is to "Deliver vital public and military engineering services; partnering in peace and war to strengthen our Nation's security, energize the economy and reduce risks from disasters."
Their most visible missions include:
The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, when the Continental Congress organized an army with a chief engineer and two assistants.ColonelRichard Gridley became General George Washington's first chief engineer. One of his first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill. The Continental Congress recognized the need for engineers trained in military fortifications and asked the government of King Louis XVI of France for assistance. Many of the early engineers in the Continental Army were former French officers. Louis Lebègue Duportail, a lieutenant colonel in the French Royal Corps of Engineers, was secretly sent to America in March 1777 to serve in Washington's Continental Army. In July 1777 he was appointed colonel and commander of all engineers in the Continental Army,and in November 17, 1777, he was promoted to brigadier general. When the Continental Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers in May 1779 Duportail was designated as its commander. In late 1781 he directed the construction of the allied U.S.-French siege works at the Battle of Yorktown.
The Corps of Engineers, as it is known today, came into existence on 16 March 1802, when President Thomas Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act whose aim was to "organize and establish a Corps of Engineers ... that the said Corps ... shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a military academy." Until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an officer of engineer.
The General Survey Act of 1824 authorized the use of Army engineers to survey road and canal routes. That same year, Congress passed an "Act to Improve the Navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers" and to remove sand bars on the Ohio and "planters, sawyers, or snags" (trees fixed in the riverbed) on the Mississippi, for which the Corps of Engineers was the responsible agency.
Formerly separate units
See also: Corps of Topographical Engineers
Separately authorized on 4 July 1838, the U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes. It was merged with the Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers also assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes.
In 1841, Congress created the Lake Survey. The survey, based in Detroit, Mich., was charged with conducting a hydrographical survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes and preparing and publishing nautical charts and other navigation aids. The Lake Survey published its first charts in 1852.
In the mid-19th century, Corps of Engineers' officers ran Lighthouse Districts in tandem with U.S. Naval officers.
The Army Corps of Engineers played a significant role in the American Civil War. Many of the men who would serve in the top leadership in this institution were West Point graduates who rose to military fame and power during the Civil War. Some of these men were Union Generals George McClellan, Henry Halleck, George Meade, and Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, and P.G.T. Beauregard. The versatility of officers in the Army Corps of Engineers contributed to the success of numerous missions throughout the Civil War. They were responsible for building pontoon and railroad bridges, forts and batteries, the destruction of enemy supply lines, and the construction of roads. The Union forces were not the only ones to employ the use of engineers throughout the war, and on 6 March 1861, once the South had seceded from the Union, among the different acts passed at the time, a provision was included that called for the creation of a Confederate Corps of Engineers.
The progression of the war demonstrated the South's disadvantage in engineering expertise; of the initial 65 cadets who resigned from West Point to accept positions with the Confederate Army, only seven were placed in the Corps of Engineers. To overcome this obstacle, the Confederate Congress passed legislation that gave a company of engineers to every division in the field; by 1865, they actually had more engineer officers serving in the field of action than the Union Army. The Army Corps of Engineers served as a main function in making the war effort logistically feasible. One of the main projects for the Army Corps of Engineers was constructing railroads and bridges, which Union forces took advantage of because railroads and bridges provided access to resources and industry. One area where the Confederate engineers were able to outperform the Union Army was in the ability to build fortifications that were used both offensively and defensively along with trenches that made them harder to penetrate. This method of building trenches was known as the zigzag pattern.
From the beginning, many politicians wanted the Corps of Engineers to contribute to both military construction and works of a civil nature. Assigned the military construction mission on 1 December 1941 after the Quartermaster Department struggled with the expanding mission, the Corps built facilities at home and abroad to support the U.S. Army and Air Force. During World War II the mission grew to more than 27,000 military and industrial projects in a $15.3 billion mobilization program. Included were aircraft, tank assembly, and ammunition plants, camps for 5.3 million soldiers, depots, ports, and hospitals, as well as the Manhattan Project, and the Pentagon.
In civilian projects, the Corps of Engineers became the lead federal flood control agency and significantly expanded its civil works activities, becoming among other things, a major provider of hydroelectric energy and the country's leading provider of recreation; its role in responding to natural disasters also grew dramatically. In the late 1960s, the agency became a leading environmental preservation and restoration agency.
In 1944, specially trained army combat engineers were assigned to blow up underwater obstacles and clear defended ports during the invasion of Normandy. During World War II, the Army Corps of Engineers in the European Theater of Operations was responsible for building numerous bridges, including the first and longest floating tactical bridge across the Rhine at Remagen, and building or maintaining roads vital to the Allied advance across Europe into the heart of Germany. In the Pacific theater, the Pioneer troops were formed, a hand-selected unit of volunteer Army combat engineers trained in jungle warfare, knife fighting, and unarmed jujitsu (hand-to-hand combat) techniques. Working in camouflage, the Pioneers cleared jungle and prepared routes of advance and established bridgeheads for the infantry as well as demolishing enemy installations.
Five commanding generals (chiefs of staff after the 1903 reorganization) of the United States Army held engineer commissions early in their careers. All transferred to other branches before rising to the top. They were Alexander Macomb, George B. McClellan, Henry W. Halleck, Douglas MacArthur, and Maxwell D. Taylor.
Notable dates and projects
- The General Survey Act of 1824 authorized use of army engineers to survey roads and canals. The next month, an act to improve navigation on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers initiated the Corps of Engineers' permanent civil works construction mission. Although the 1824 act to improve the Mississippi and Ohio rivers is often called the first rivers and harbors legislation, the act passed in 1826 was the first to combine authorizations for both surveys and projects, thereby establishing a pattern that continues to the present day.
- Survey and construction of the National Road until Federal funds were withdrawn (1838)
- The 555 ft 5 1⁄8 in (169.29 m) tall Washington Monument, completed under the direction and command of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lincoln Casey, 1884
- Panama Canal, completed under supervision of Army Engineer officers, 1914
- Flood Control Act of 1936 made flood control a federal policy and officially recognized the Corps of Engineers as the major federal flood control agency
- Bonneville Dam, completed in 1937
- Flood Control Act of 1941, which channelized the Los Angeles River and parts of the Santa Ana River
- USACE took over all real estate acquisition, construction, and maintenance for army facilities, 1941
- The Manhattan Project (1942–1946)
- Planning and construction of The Pentagon, completed in 1943 just 16 months after groundbreaking
- Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, first authorized by congress in 1948
- USACE began construction support for NASA leading to major activities at the Manned Spacecraft Center and Kennedy Space Center, 1961
- King Khalid Military City 1973–1987.
- The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (WRDA 86) brought major change in financing by requiring non federal contributions toward most federal water resource projects
- Cross Florida Barge Canal
- Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway
Occasional civil disasters, including the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, resulted in greater responsibilities for the Corps of Engineers. The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans provides another example of this.
The Chief of Engineers and Commanding General of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers works under the civilian oversight of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works). Three deputy commanding generals report to the chief of engineers, who have the following titles: Deputy Commanding General, Deputy Commanding General for Civil and Emergency Operation, and Deputy Commanding General for Military and International Operations. The Corps of Engineers headquarters is located in Washington, D.C. The headquarters staff is responsible for Corps of Engineers policy and plans the future direction of all other USACE organizations. It comprises the executive office and 17 staff principals. USACE has two directors who head up Military Programs and Civil Works, Director of Military Programs and Director of Civil Works.
Divisions and districts
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is organized geographically into eight permanent divisions, one provisional division, one provisional district, and one research command reporting directly to the HQ. Within each division, there are several districts. Districts are defined by watershed boundaries for civil works projects and by political boundaries for military projects.
- Great Lakes and Ohio River Division (LRD), located in Cincinnati. Reaches from the St Lawrence Seaway, across the Great Lakes, down the Ohio River Valley to the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. Covers 355,300 square miles (920,000 km2), parts of 17 states. Serves 56 million people. Its seven districts are located in Buffalo, Chicago, Detroit, Louisville, Nashville, Pittsburgh, and Huntington, West Virginia. The division commander serves on two national and international decision-making bodies: co-chair of the Lake Superior, Niagara, and Ontario/St Lawrence Seaway boards of control; and the Mississippi River Commission.
- Mississippi Valley Division (MVD), located in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Reaches from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Covers 370,000 square miles (960,000 km2), and portions of 12 states bordering the Mississippi River. Serves 28 million people. Its six districts are located in St. Paul, Minnesota, Rock Island, Illinois, St. Louis, Memphis, Vicksburg, and New Orleans. MVD serves as headquarters for the Mississippi River Commission.
- North Atlantic Division (NAD), headquartered at Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn, New York. Reaches from Maine to Virginia, including the District of Columbia, with an overseas mission to provide engineering, construction, and project management services to the U.S. European Command and U.S. Africa Command. Serves 62 million people. Its six districts are located in New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, Concord, Massachusetts, and Wiesbaden, Germany. NAD has the largest Superfund program in USACE with 60% of the funding. NAD's Europe District has done work in dozens of countries and currently has offices in Germany, Belgium, Italy, Turkey, Georgia, Romania, Bulgaria, Israel, Spain, and soon Botswana.
- Northwestern Division (NWD), located in Portland, Oregon. Reaches from Canada to California, and from the Pacific Ocean to Missouri. Covers nearly 1,000,000 square miles (2,600,000 km2) in all or parts of 14 states. Its five districts are located in Omaha, Portland, Seattle, Kansas City, and Walla Walla. NWD has 35% of the total Corps of Engineers' water storage capacity and 75% of the total hydroelectric capacity.
- Pacific Ocean Division (POD), located at Fort Shafter, Hawaii. Reaches across 12 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean from the Arctic Circle to American Samoa below the equator and across the International Date Line, and into Asia. includes the territories of Guam, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands as well as the Freely Associated States including the Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Its four districts are located in Japan; Seoul, South Korea; Anchorage, Alaska; and Honolulu. Unlike other military work, POD designs and builds for all of the military services — Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines — in Japan, Korea, and Kwajalein Atoll.
- South Atlantic Division (SAD), located in Atlanta. Reaches from North Carolina to Alabama as well as the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Covers all or parts of six states. Its five districts are located in Wilmington, North Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, Savannah, Jacksonville, and Mobile. One-third of the stateside Army and one-fifth of the stateside Air Force are located within the division boundaries. The largest single environmental restoration project in the world — the Everglades Restoration — is managed by SAD.
- South Pacific Division (SPD), located in San Francisco. Reaches from California to Colorado and New Mexico. Covers all or parts of seven states. Its four districts are located in Albuquerque, Los Angeles, Sacramento, and San Francisco. Its region is host to 18 of the 25 fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the nation.
- Southwestern Division (SWD), located in Dallas. Reaches from Mexico to Kansas. Covers all or part of seven states. Its four districts are located in Little Rock, Tulsa, Galveston, and Fort Worth. SWD's recreation areas are the most visited in USACE with more than 11,400 miles (18,300 km) of shoreline and 1,172 recreation sites.
- Transatlantic Division (TAD), located in Winchester, Virginia. Supports Federal programs and policies overseas. Consists of the Gulf Region District, the Afghanistan Engineer District South, the Afghanistan Engineer District North, the Middle East District, the USACE Deployment Center and the TAD G2 Intelligence Fusion Center. TAD oversees thousands of projects overseas. TAD overseas locations are staffed primarily by civilian volunteers from throughout USACE. The Corps of Engineers built much of the original Ring Road in the early 1960s and returned in 2002. Supports the full spectrum of regional support, including the Afghan National Security Forces, U.S. and Coalition Forces, Counter Narcotics and Border Management, Strategic Reconstruction support to USAID, and the Commander's Emergency Response Program.
The Engineer Regiment
See also: Military engineering of the United States
U.S. Army Engineer units outside of USACE Districts and not listed below fall under the Engineer Regiment of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Army engineers include both combat engineers and support engineers more focused on construction and sustainment. The vast majority of military personnel in the United States Army Corps of Engineers serve in this Engineer Regiment. The Engineer Regiment is headquartered at Fort Leonard Wood, MO and is commanded by the Engineer Commandant, currently a position filled by an Army Brigadier General from the Engineer Branch.
The Engineer Regiment includes the U.S. Army Engineer School (USAES) which publishes its mission as: Generate the military engineer capabilities the Army needs: training and certifying Soldiers with the right knowledge, skills, and critical thinking; growing and educating professional leaders; organizing and equipping units; establishing a doctrinal framework for employing capabilities; and remaining an adaptive institution in order to provide Commanders with the freedom of action they need to successfully execute Unified Land Operations.
Other USACE organizations
There are several other organizations within the Corps of Engineers:
- Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) — the Corps of Engineers research and development command. ERDC comprises seven laboratories. (see research below)
- U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (CEHNC) — provides engineering and technical services, program and project management, construction management, and innovative contracting initiatives, for programs that are national or broad in scope or not normally provided by other Corps of Engineers elements
- Finance Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CEFC) — supports the operating finance and accounting functions throughout the Corps of Engineers
- Humphreys Engineer Center Support Activity (CEHEC) — provides administrative and operational support for Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and various field offices.
- Army Geospatial Center (AGC) — provides geospatial information, standards, systems, support, and services across the Army and the Department of Defense.
- Marine Design Center (CEMDC) — provides total project management including planning, engineering, and shipbuilding contract management in support of USACE, Army, and national water resource projects in peacetime, and augments the military construction capacity in time of national emergency or mobilization
- Institute for Water Resources (IWR) — supports the Civil Works Directorate and other Corps of Engineers commands by developing and applying new planning evaluation methods, polices and data in anticipation of changing water resources management conditions.
- USACE Logistics Activity (ULA)- Provides logistics support to the Corps of Engineers including supply, maintenance, readiness, materiel, transportation, travel, aviation, facility management, integrated logistics support, management controls, and strategic planning.
- Enterprise Infrastructure Services (CEEIS) — designs information technology standards for the Corps, including automation, communications, management, visual information, printing, records management, and information assurance. CEEIS outsources the maintenance of its IT services, forming the Army Corps of Engineers Information Technology (ACE-IT). ACE-IT is made up of both civilian government employees and contractors.
- Deployable Tactical Operations System (DTOS) — provides mobile command and control platforms in support of the quick ramp-up of initial emergency response missions for the Corps. DTOS is a system designed to respond to District, Division, National, and International events.
- Until 2001 local Directorates of Engineering and Housing (DEH), being constituents of the USACE, had been responsible for the housing, infrastructure and related tasks as environmental protection, garbage removal and special fire departments or fire alarm coordination centers in the garrisons of the U.S. Army abroad as in Europe (e.g. Germany, as in Berlin, Wiesbaden, Karlsruhe etc.) Subsequently, a similar structure called DPWs (Directorates of Public Works), subordinate to the United States Army Installation Management Command, assumed the tasks formerly done by the DEHs.
Directly reporting military units
- 249th Engineer Battalion (Prime Power) — generates and distributes prime electrical power in support of fighting wars, disaster relief, stability and support operations as well as provides advice and technical assistance in all aspects of electrical power and distribution systems.
- 911th Engineer Company — (formerly the MDW Engineer Company) provides specialized technical search and rescue support for the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area; it is also a vital support member of the Joint Force Headquarters National Capital Region, which is charged with the homeland security of the United States capital region.
- 412th Theater Engineer Command, U.S. Army Reserve, located in Vicksburg, MS.
- 416th Theater Engineer Command, U.S. Army Reserve, located in Darien, IL.
See also: Sapper, Combat engineer, and Military engineering
USACE provides support directly and indirectly to the warfighting effort. They build and help maintain much of the infrastructure that the Army and the Air Force use to train, house, and deploy troops. USACE built and maintained navigation systems and ports provide the means to deploy vital equipment and other material. Corps of Engineers Research and Development (R&D) facilities help develop new methods and measures for deployment, force protection, terrain analysis, mapping, and other support.
USACE directly supports the military in the battle zone, making expertise available to commanders to help solve or avoid engineering (and other) problems. Forward Engineer Support Teams, FEST-A's or FEST-M's, may accompany combat engineers to provide immediate support, or to reach electronically into the rest of USACE for the necessary expertise. A FEST-A team is an eight-person detachment; a FEST-M is approximately 36. These teams are designed to provide immediate technical-engineering support to the warfighter or in a disaster area. Corps of Engineers' professionals use the knowledge and skills honed on both military and civil projects to support the U.S. and local communities in the areas of real estate, contracting, mapping, construction, logistics, engineering, and management experience. This work currently includes support for rebuilding Iraq, establishing Afghanistan infrastructure, and supporting international and inter-agency services.
In addition, the work of almost 26,000 civilians on civil-works programs throughout USACE provide a training ground for similar capabilities worldwide. USACE civilians volunteer for assignments worldwide. For example, hydropower experts have helped repair, renovate, and run hydropower dams in Iraq in an effort to help get Iraqis to become self-sustaining.
USACE supports the United States' Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) through its security planning, force protection, research and development, disaster preparedness efforts, and quick response to emergencies and disasters.
The CoE conducts its emergency response activities under two basic authorities — the Flood Control and Coastal Emergency Act (Pub.L. 84–99), and the Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Pub.L. 93–288). In a typical year, the Corps of Engineers responds to more than 30 Presidential disaster declarations, plus numerous state and local emergencies. Emergency responses usually involve cooperation with other military elements and Federal agencies in support of State and local efforts.
Work comprises engineering and management support to military installations, global real estate support, civil works support (including risk and priorities), operations and maintenance of Federal navigation and flood control projects, and monitoring of dams and levees.
More than 67 percent of the goods consumed by Americans and more than half of the nation's oil imports are processed through deepwater ports maintained by the Corps of Engineers, which maintains more than 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of commercially navigable channels across the U.S.
In both its Civil Works mission and Military Construction program, the Corps of Engineers is responsible for billions of dollars of the nation's infrastructure. For example, USACE maintains direct control of 609 dams, maintains or operates 257 navigation locks, and operates 75 hydroelectric facilities generating 24% of the nation's hydropower and three percent of its total electricity. USACE inspects over 2,000 Federal and non-Federal levees every two years.
Four billion gallons of water per day are drawn from the Corps of Engineers' 136 multi-use flood control projects comprising 9,800,000 acre feet (12.1 km3) of water storage, making it one of the United States' largest water supply agencies.
The 249th Engineer Battalion (Prime Power), the only active duty unit in USACE, generates and distributes prime electrical power in support of warfighting, disaster relief, stability and support operations as well as provides advice and technical assistance in all aspects of electrical power and distribution systems. The battalion deployed in support of recovery operations after 9/11 and was instrumental in getting Wall Street back up and running within a week. The battalion also deployed in support of post-Katrina operations.
All of this work represents a significant investment in the nation's resources.
Through its Civil Works program, USACE carries out a wide array of projects that provide coastal protection, flood protection, hydropower, navigable waters and ports, recreational opportunities, and water supply. Work includes coastal protection and restoration, including a new emphasis on a more holistic approach to risk management. As part of this work, USACE is the number one provider of outdoor recreation in the U.S., so there is a significant emphasis on water safety.
Army involvement in works "of a civil nature," including water resources, goes back almost to the origins of the U.S. Over the years, as the nation's needs have changed, so have the Army's Civil Works missions.
Major areas of emphasis include the following:
- Navigation. Supporting navigation by maintaining and improving channels was the Corps of Engineers' earliest Civil Works mission, dating to Federal laws in 1824 authorizing the Corps to improve safety on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and several ports. Today, the Corps of Engineers maintains more than 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of inland waterways and operates 235 locks. These waterways—a system of rivers, lakes and coastal bays improved for commercial and recreational transportation—carry about 1/6 of the nation's inter-city freight, at a cost per ton-mile about 1/2 that of rail or 1/10 that of trucks. USACE also maintains 300 commercial harbors, through which pass 2,000,000,000 short tons (1.8×109 metric tons) of cargo a year, and more than 600 smaller harbors.
- Flood Risk Management. The Engineers were first called upon to address flood problems along the Mississippi river in the mid-19th century. They began work on the Mississippi River and Tributaries Flood Control Project in 1928, and the Flood Control Act of 1936 gave the Corps the mission to provide flood protection to the entire country.
- Recreation. The Corps of Engineers is the nation's largest provider of outdoor recreation, operating more than 2,500 recreation areas at 463 projects (mostly lakes) and leasing an additional 1,800 sites to state or local park and recreation authorities or private interests. USACE hosts about 360 million visits a year at its lakes, beaches and other areas, and estimates that 25 million Americans (one in ten) visit a Corps' project at least once a year. Supporting visitors to these recreation areas generates 600,000 jobs.
- Hydroelectric Power. The Corps of Engineers was first authorized to build hydroelectric plants in the 1920s, and today operates 75 power plants, producing one fourth of the nation's hydro-electric power—or three percent of its total electric energy. This makes USACE the fifth largest electric supplier in the United States.
- Shore Protection. With a large proportion of the U.S. population living near our sea and lake shores, and an estimated 75% of U.S. vacations being spent at the beach, there has been Federal interest — and a Corps of Engineers mission — in protecting these areas from hurricane and coastal storm damage.
- Dam Safety. The Corps of Engineers develops engineering criteria for safe dams, and conducts an active inspection program of its own dams.
- Water Supply. The Corps first got involved in water supply in the 1850s, when they built the Washington Aqueduct. Today USACE reservoirs supply water to nearly 10 million people in 115 cities. In the drier parts of the Nation, water from Corps reservoirs is also used for agriculture.
- Water Safety. The Corps of Engineers has taken an interest in recreational water safety, with current initiatives for increasing the use rate of life jackets and preventing the use of alcohol while boating.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers environmental mission has two major focus areas: restoration and stewardship. The Corps supports and manages numerous environmental programs, that run the gamut from cleaning up areas on former military installations contaminated by hazardous waste or munitions to helping establish/reestablish wetlands that helps endangered species survive. Some of these programs include Ecosystem Restoration, Formerly Used Defense Sites, Environmental Stewardship, EPA Superfund, Abandoned Mine Lands, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Base Realignment and Closure, 2005, and Regulatory.
This mission includes education as well as regulation and cleanup.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has an active environmental program under both its Military and Civil Programs. The Civil Works environmental mission that ensures all USACE projects, facilities and associated lands meet environmental standards. The program has four functions: compliance, restoration, prevention, and conservation. The Corps also regulates all work in wetlands and waters of the United States.
The Military Programs Environmental Program manages design and execution of a full range of cleanup and protection activities:
- cleans up sites contaminated with hazardous waste, radioactive waste, or ordnance
- complies with federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations
- strives to minimize our use of hazardous materials
- conserves our natural and cultural resources
The following are major areas of environmental emphasis:
- Wetlands and Waterways Regulation and Permitting
- Ecosystem Restoration
- Environmental Stewardship
- Radioactive site cleanup through the Formerly Used Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)
- Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)
- Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS)
- Support to EPA's Superfund Program
See also Environmental Enforcement below.
Operational facts and figures
Summary of facts and figures as of 2007, provided by the Corps of Engineers:
- One HQ, 8 Divisions, 2 Provisional Division, 45 Districts, 6 Centers, one active-duty unit, 2 Engineer Reserve Command
- At work in more than 90 countries
- Supports 159 Army installations and 91 Air Force installations
- Owns and operates 609 dams
- Owns or operates 257 navigation lock chambers at 212 sites
- Largest owner-operator of hydroelectric plants in the US. Owns and operates 75 plants—24% of U.S. hydropower capacity (3% of the total U.S. electric capacity)
- Operates and maintains 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of commercial inland navigation channels
- Maintains 926 coast, Great Lakes, and inland harbors
- Dredge 255,000,000 cubic yards (195,000,000 m3) annually for construction or maintenance
- Nation's number one provider of outdoor recreation with more than 368 million visits annually to 4,485 sites at 423 USACE projects (383 major lakes and reservoirs)
- Total water supply storage capacity of 329,900,000 acre feet (406.9 km3)
- Average annual damages prevented by Corps flood risk management projects (1995–2004) of $21 billion (see "Civil works controversies" below)
- Approximately 137 environmental protection projects under construction (September 2006 figure)
- Approximately 38,700 acres (157,000,000 m2) of wetlands restored, created, enhanced, or preserved annually under the Corps' Regulatory Program
- Approximately $4 billion in technical services to 70 non-DoD Federal agencies annually
- Completed (and continuing work on) thousands of infrastructure projects in Iraq at an estimated cost over $9 billion: school projects (324,000 students), crude oil production 3 million barrels per day (480,000 m3/d), potable water projects (3.9 million people (goal 5.2 million)), fire stations, border posts, prison/courthouse improvements, transportation/communication projects, village road/expressways, railroad stations, postal facilities, and aviation projects. More than 90 percent of the USACE construction contracts have been awarded to Iraqi-owned businesses — offering employment opportunities, boosting the economy, providing jobs, and training, promoting stability and security where before there was none. Consequently, the mission is a central part of the U.S. exit strategy.
- The Corps of Engineers has one of the strongest Small Business Programs in the Army—Each year, approximately 33% of all contract dollars are obligated with Small Businesses, Small Disadvantaged Businesses, Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Businesses, Women Owned Small Businesses, Historically Underutilized Business Zones, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Jackie Robinson-Burnette was named the Chief of the Corps' Small Business Program in May 2010. The program is managed through an integrated network of over 60 Small Business Advisors, 8 Division Commanders, 4 Center Directors, and 45 District Commanders.
Environmental protection and regulatory program
The regulatory program is authorized to protect the nation's aquatic resources. USACE personnel evaluate permit applications for essentially all construction activities that occur in the nation's waters, including wetlands. Two primary authorities granted to the Army Corps of Engineers by Congress fall under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act.
Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 (codified in Chapter 33, Section 403 of the United States Code) gave the Corps authority over navigable waters of the United States, defined as "those waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and/or are presently being used, or have been used in the past, or may be susceptible for use to transport interstate or foreign commerce." Section 10 covers construction, excavation, or deposition of materials in, over, or under such waters, or any work that would affect the course, location, condition or capacity of those waters. Actions requiring section 10 permits include structures (e.g., piers, wharfs, breakwaters, bulkheads, jetties, weirs, transmission lines) and work such as dredging or disposal of dredged material, or excavation, filling or other modifications to the navigable waters of the United States. The Coast Guard also has responsibility for permitting the erection or modification of bridges over navigable waters of the U.S.
Another of the major responsibilities of the Army Corps of Engineers is administering the permitting program under Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, also known as the Clean Water Act. The Secretary of the Army is authorized under this act to issue permits for the discharge of dredged and fill material in waters of the United States, including adjacent wetlands. The geographic extent of waters of the United States subject to section 404 permits fall under a broader definition and include tributaries to navigable waters and adjacent wetlands. The engineers must first determine if the waters at the project site are jurisdictional and subject to the requirements of the section 404 permitting program. Once jurisdiction has been established, permit review and authorization follows a sequence process that encourages avoidance of impacts, followed by minimizing impacts and, finally, requiring mitigation for unavoidable impacts to the aquatic environment. This sequence is described in the section 404(b)(1) guidelines.
There are three types of permits issued by the Corps of Engineers: Nationwide, Regional General, and Individual. 80% of the permits issued are nationwide permits, which include 50 general type of activities for minimal impacts to waters of the United States, as published in the Federal Register. Nationwide permits are subject to a reauthorization process every 5 years, with the most recent reauthorization occurring in March, 2012. To gain authorization under a nationwide permit, an applicant must comply with the terms and conditions of the nationwide permit. Select nationwide permits require preconstruction notification to the applicable corps district office notifying them of his or her intent, type and amount of impact and fill in waters, and a site map. Although the nationwide process is fairly simple, corps approval must be obtained before commencing with any work in waters of the United States. Regional general permits are specific to each corps district office. Individual permits are generally required for projects that impact greater than 0.5 acres (2,000 m2) of waters of the United States. Individual permits are required for activities that result in more than minimal impacts to the aquatic environment.
The Corps of Engineers has two research organizations, the Engineer Research and Development Center
The 18th Engineer Brigade (Theater Army) is an engineer brigade of the United States Army. It is currently a subordinate unit of 21st Sustainment Command (Theater) and is headquartered at Conn Barracks in Schweinfurt, Germany. Soldiers of the 18th Engineer Brigade provide various supportive duties to other Army units, including construction, engineering, and mechanical work on other Army projects.
The brigade served in Europe during World War II, a fact which was included on its Distinctive Unit Insignia when the 20th Engineer Brigade received one on 10 February 1966. The four corners of the crenelated square allude to their four campaigns in World War II, Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland and Central Europe.
The 18th Engineer Brigade later deployed to Vietnam, during the Vietnam War, where its battalions saw six years of combat service and supported fourteen campaigns, building infrastructure for both military and civilian projects. The brigade participated in a massive number of road construction projects and airfield constructions, supporting numerous infantry units and operating all over Vietnam. After serving in Vietnam, the brigade became attached to Seventh United States Army. It has since undertaken and completed numerous projects in support of US Army, Europe, and participated in Operation Desert Storm, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Iraqi Freedom.
The US Army's 18th Engineer Brigade is a subordinate unit of 21st Sustainment Command (Theater). The brigade has been assigned to Europe since February 2007. The brigade is headquartered at Conn Barracks in Schweinfurt, Germany. The brigade's current commander is Colonel Scott A. Petersen, while its Command Sergeant Major is Lauro F. Obeada.
In addition to Headquarters and Headquarters Company and the 243d Engineer Detachment (Construction Management), which is located in Grafenwhoer, Germany two subordinate engineer battalions are permanently attached: the 15th Engineer Battalion headquartered at Grafenwöhr, Germany, and the 54th Engineer Battalion headquartered at Bamberg, Germany.
The lineage of the 18th Engineer Brigade can be traced to 29 July 1921, when its predecessor, the 347th Engineers (General Service), was constituted as an Organized Reserves unit. The 347th Engineers would not be activated for almost twenty years, until the military buildup after the United States entered World War II. The unit was ordered into active military service on 6 May 1942 at Camp Claiborne, Louisiana.
On 1 August 1942, the unit was reorganized and re-designated as the 347th Engineer General Services Regiment. The Regiment deployed to England in February 1944. It entered combat in France on 29 June 1944 and participated in the Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland and Central Europe campaigns of World War II, earning its first Meritorious Unit Commendation. After V-E Day, the regiment remained on occupation duty in Germany until its inactivation on 1 June 1946.
On 15 June 1947, the regiment was reactivated in the organized reserves headquartered in Salt Lake, Utah, and remained there until it was again inactivated on 16 March 1949. On 25 October 1954, the 347th Engineer General Services Regiment was re-designated the 18th Engineer Brigade for the first time and activated as a Regular Army unit at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, where it remained until inactivation on 26 March 1963.
The 18th Engineer Brigade was reactivated on 16 July 1965 at Fort Bragg, N.C. and prepared for deployment to Vietnam. The 18th Engineer Brigade entered Vietnam in September 1965 with the responsibility for overseeing all Army Engineering operations in Vietnam until the establishment of the U.S. Army Engineer Command, Vietnam, in late 1966.
Under the command of Colonel C. Craig Cannon, the Brigade prepared for deployment to Vietnam. The Advance Party of the 18th Engineer Brigade arrived at Saigon's Tan Son Nhut Air Base on 3 September 1965. Three days later, Brigadier General Robert R. Ploger assumed command of the Brigade. Within two weeks, the Brigade Headquarters at Tan Son Nhut was fully operational. It had been preceded by the 35th Engineer Group, which built Cam Ranh Bay on a peninsula of sand and in a hostile environment. The brigade assumed responsibility for I Corps and II Corps in the northern part of South Vietnam. The 937th Engineer Group (Combat) at Qui Nhơn was assigned to the Brigade in June 1966.
Its initial activities centered around rapid development of the port facilities, ammunition dumps, base camps and airfields necessary to support the build-up of US combat forces deploying to Vietnam. During the initial construction phases its combat engineer battalions also provided support for search and destroy missions and defensive operations with the 101st Airborne Division near Ninh Hoa and the 4th Infantry Division at Pleiku.
On 18 January 1969, an ammunition storage area was completed at Cam Ranh Bay. It had taken two years to build this complex, which covered over 191,700 square feet (17,810 m2). English Airfield was completed on 21 March 1969 near Qui Nhơn. The runway was 3,600 feet (1,100 m) long, 60 feet (18 m) wide, and included a 150—foot by 150—foot turn around area.
On 3 May 1969, Brigadier General John W. Morris assumed command of the Brigade. Soon afterwards, Brigade engineers finished construction of a cold storage warehouse at the Qui Nhơn Support Command, the first of its kind in Vietnam. Construction of the Tandem Switch Building at Vung Chau Mountain was also completed about this time. This 4,000-square-foot (370 m2) building housed almost US$1 million of communications equipment. During the summer months of 1969, Brigade engineers completed the 200,000-barrel (32,000 m3) capacity Air Force tank farm at Cam Ranh Bay, after laying over 12,000 feet (3,700 m) of pipe to complete the project.
The beginning of 1970 saw the initiation of the 18th Engineers Brigade's Operation Last Chance, a program of command emphasis and organization for motivation and success of that year's engineer operations. The goals of the program were to maintain primary missions of the combat support as well as insure the completion of the many projects planned for the 1970 construction operations.
February 1970 saw the completion of a project begun in the summer of the previous year at Qui Nhơn that replaced a temporary floating steel dock with a more permanent structure which could accommodate six ammo barges at once. The port of Qui Nhơn became one of the few supply points where ammunition for the First and Second Military Regions could be handled in bulk quantities simultaneously. Prior to the completion of this new facility, the handling of ammunition there had to take place in other areas, near public housing and fuel storage depots.
On 3 May 1970, Brigadier General Henry C. Schrader assumed command of the 18th Engineer Brigade. Shortly after this, the most difficult stretch of the roadway that the Brigade had ever undertaken—the 27-kilometer stretch of National Highway QL-11 South in the central highlands region known as Tây Nguyên, commonly referred to as the "Good View Pass", was completed. This road had been carved out from a dangerous mountain pass to a national road in less than one year.
The Lines of Communication Program, which represents the most significant contribution that the 18th Engineer Brigade had made to the economic growth of Vietnam, consisted of about 1,500 kilometers of road upgrade from 1967 to 1972. After a slow start in the beginning of this work, the Brigade finished some 560 kilometers of highway reconstruction, and improvement in 1970 and another 450 kilometers were scheduled for completion in 1971 by Brigade units.
In conjunction with the Brigade efforts on the Lines of Communication Program, 18th Brigade engineers was involved in a program of affiliation with ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) engineers. In addition to continuous training programs which the Brigade established to train ARVN equipment operators, the engineers of the 18th provided technical assistance and logistical support to several projects undertaken by the Vietnamese Army, most notably in the construction of the 3,600-foot (1,100 m) bridge at Tuy Hòa. Upon its completion and opening on 13 February 1971, this bridge became the longest overpass of its type ever constructed in the Republic of Vietnam. It would be one of 77 such bridges that the Brigade would construct in the country.
In support of the XXIV Corps, the 18th Brigade mounted what was described as the "most ambitious engineering effort in Vietnam" at the end of January 1971. The Brigade engineers pushed a roadway across the rugged terrain of the northern Quảng Trị Province to the Laotian border and constructed a 3,200-foot (980 m) by 60-foot (18 m) airfield in little more than a month at Khe Sanh. This construction effort was part of Operation Dewey Canyon II.
On 20 September 1971 the Brigade was inactivated. Over the six years that it served in Vietnam, the 18th Engineer Brigade was involved in 14 of 17 campaigns, earning four Meritorious Unit Commendations.
On 21 October 1977 the 18th Engineer Brigade was reactivated at Karlsruhe, Germany. For 15 years, the Brigade served as the principal construction brigade for the United States Army, Europe and 7th Army. During this period, the Brigade performed numerous construction, rehabilitation and renovation missions in military communities and training areas of the 7th Army. These included an extensive range upgrade of the Grafenwohr Major Training Area in the early 1980s and the construction of the Range 23 complex at the Wildflecken Major Training Area in 1989 and 1990. Additionally, the Brigade was responsible for providing topographic support to the European Theater.
In 1990 and 1991, during Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, the 18th Engineer Brigade provided rail and sea deployment support to the VII Corps and, in addition, deployed a Combat Heavy Battalion and Topographic Company to support VII Corps operations in Southwest Asia. In April 1991, the Brigade Headquarters, along with elements of the 94th Engineer Battalion (Combat) (Heavy), deployed to Zakho, Iraq in support of Operation Provide Comfort. While there, the Brigade coordinated all engineer efforts of a Joint and Combined engineer force providing construction and relief support to the Kurdish refugees. The 18th Engineer Brigade was awarded the Joint Meritorious Unit Award for its action during Operation Provide Comfort. As part of the reduction of forces in Europe, the Brigade was inactivated on 15 October 1992.
On 18 October 2002 the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army approved the USAREUR and 7th Army Concept Plan to activate the Theater Army Engineer Brigade (TAEB). Today, the 18th Engineer Brigade (Theater Army) marks the return to service of the only active duty TAEB. The unit was officially reactivated on 6 June 2004.
Operation Enduring Freedom
The 18th Engineer Brigade was deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in April 2005. Its primary areas of operation were in and around Bagram, Kandahar, and Sharana, among other locations.
In 2007, the 18th Engineer Brigade was reassigned to V Corps, taking the place of the 130th Engineer Brigade, which returned to the United States. Some of the 130th's units either merged or were reassigned to the 18th Brigade. During this time, the unit participated in road work, construction of Forward Operating Bases, and other activities that enhanced training readiness in and around Campbell Barracks.
Operation Iraqi Freedom 08-10
In 2008, the unit was notified of another upcoming deployment to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. It commands three to five engineer battalions in Multinational Division – North. The battalions support individual Brigade Combat Teams of other units in "Task Force Iron", a combat group led by the 1st Armored Division. They are working to rebuild Iraqi infrastructure, with the cooperation of Iraqi engineers, including construction of roads, airfields, and land moving. The unit cased its colors on 29 April 2008, formally signifying the beginning of its deployment to Iraq.
The Brigade spent the first six months of its deployment to Tikrit in central Iraq, working on projects there for Multinational Division-Center under the 10th Mountain Division. On 6 November, the brigade relocated to Kirkuk, unfurling its colors at Forward Operating Base Warrior. The brigade conducted route clearance and construction projects in northern Iraq, while partnered with Iraqi engineers. It replaced the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division in Kirkuk and will was under the area of responsibility of Multinational Division-North led by the 1st Armored Division. In February 2009, the brigade again moved, this time to Ninewa Province to focus on construction projects in areas in and around Mosul. It was relieved by 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division. On 17 July 2009, the brigade handed over responsibility of Mosul to the 130th Engineer Brigade. The brigade subsequently returned to Schwetzingen, Germany after its 15-month deployment was finished.
Operation Enduring Freedom
The Brigade deployed to Afghanistan for its second deployment to the country since 2001.
|World War II||Normandy Campaign||1945|
|World War II||Northern France Campaign||1945|
|World War II||Rhineland Campaign||1945|
|World War II||Central Europe Campaign||1945|
|Vietnam War||Vietnam Defense||1965|
|Vietnam War||Counteroffensive, Phase I||1965–1966|
|Vietnam War||Counteroffensive, Phase II||1966–1967|
|Vietnam War||Counteroffensive, Phase III||1967–1968|
|Vietnam War||Tet Counteroffensive||1968|
|Vietnam War||Counteroffensive, Phase IV||1968|
|Vietnam War||Counteroffensive, Phase V||1968|
|Vietnam War||Counteroffensive, Phase VI||1968–1969|
|Vietnam War||Tet 69/Counteroffensive||1969|
|Vietnam War||Summer–Fall 1969||1969|
|Vietnam War||Winter–Spring 1970||1970|
|Vietnam War||Sanctuary Counteroffensive||1970|
|Vietnam War||Counteroffensive, Phase VII||1970–1971|
|Operation Enduring Freedom||Afghanistan||2005–2006|
|Operation Iraqi Freedom||Iraqi Campaign, Iraqi Surge, Iraqi Campaign, Iraqi Sovereignty||2008-2009|
Three soldiers from the 18th Engineer Brigade have gone on to serve as Chief of Engineers, the head of the US Army's Corps of Engineers, this is the highest number to come from a single engineer brigade. These three are Lieutenant Generals Joe N. Ballard,John W. Morris, and Walter K. Wilson, Jr.. In addition to commanding the brigade from 1987 to 1990, while it was stationed outside of Karlsruhe in Germany, LTG Ballard had also commanded a company in one of the brigade's subordinate battalions, the 864th Engineer Battalion, during its earlier years in Vietnam.
- ^18th Engineer Brigade Homepage, 18th Engineer Brigade Staff. Retrieved on 10 February 2008
- ^ abcdefghij18th Engineer Brigade Society: Unit History, 18th Engineer Brigade Society. Retrieved on 2 March 2008
- ^ abcdefghijkl18th Engineer Brigade Homepage: History United States Army. Retrieved on 10 February 2008
- ^The Institute of Heraldry: 18th Engineer Brigade, United States Army. Retrieved on 10 March 2008
- ^ abcSenior Officer Debriefing Report, Office of the US Army Adjutant General. Retrieved on 15 March 2008
- ^18th Engineer Brigade Reactivation Information, 18th Engineer Brigade Society Staff. Retrieved on 15 March 2008
- ^ abLineage and Honors, 18th Engineer Brigade, United States Army. Retrieved on 15 March 2008.
- ^Spc. Sean C. Finch 18th Engineer Brigade Joins V Corps, V Corps Public Affairs Staff. Retrieved on 15 March 2008
- ^18th Engineer Brigade survey teams provide real-world expertise while training for Iraq deployment, Dave Melancon, US Army Europe Public Affairs. Retrieved on 18 March 2008.
- ^Brigades set up Task Forces to take care of Soldiers, Families during deployments, United States Army Image Gallery. Retrieved on 29 April 2008.
- ^18th Engineer Brigade assumes mission in Kirkuk, United States Army Homepage. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- ^18th Engineer Brigade Assumes Role in Kirkuk Region, Multinational Division North Public Affairs Office. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- ^Capt. Stephen Barker, 18th Engineer Brigade Public Affairs Officer. "Headquarters of U.S. Army Europe's 18th Engineer Brigade moving for third time during 15-month deployment". United States Army. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- ^"130th Engineer Brigade Assumes Responsibility". United States Army. Archived from the original on 9 August 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- ^"Welcome Home: 18th Engineer Brigade returns after 15-month deployment". United States Army. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- ^"18th Engineer Brigade cases colors, prepares for deployment"(PDF). US Army. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
- ^Portraits of Chief Engineer Joe N. BallardArchived 19 June 2005 at the Wayback Machine., United States Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved on 15 March 2008.
- ^Portraits of Chief Engineer John W. MorrisArchived 19 June 2005 at the Wayback Machine., United States Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved on 15 March 2008.
- ^Portraits of Chief Engineer Walter K. Wilson, Jr.Archived 19 June 2005 at the Wayback Machine., United States Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved on 15 March 2008